Notes to the Accounts For the year ended 31 December 2007

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1. Significant accounting policies

Statement of compliance

The financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention and in accordance with current InternationalFinancial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with IFRS adopted for use in the European Union and therefore comply with Article 4 of the EU IAS Regulation.

Basis of preparation

The financial statements of Michael Page International plc consolidate the results of the Company and all its subsidiary undertakings. As permitted by Section 230 of the Companies Act 1985, the profit and loss account of the Company has not been included as part of these accounts. The Company’s profit for the financial year amounted to £0.7m (2006: £6.7m).

Basis of consolidation

(i)SubsidiariesSubsidiaries are entities controlled by the Company. Control exists when the Company has the power, directly or indirectly, to govern the financial and operating policies of an entity so as to obtain benefits from its activities. In assessing control, potential voting rights that presently are exercisable or convertible are taken into account. The financial statements of subsidiaries are included in the consolidated financial statements from the date that control commences until the date that control ceases.

(ii)Transactions eliminated on consolidation Intragroup balances and any unrealised gains and losses or income and expenses arising from intragroup transactions, are eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Unrealised gains arising from transactions with associates and jointly controlled entities are eliminated to the extent of the Group's interest in the entity. Unrealised losses are eliminated in the same way as unrealised gains, but only to the extent that there is no evidence of impairment.

(iii)Employee Benefit Trust In accordance with UITF 38, Accounting for Employee Share Ownership Plan (ESOP ) Trusts, shares in Michael Page International plc held by the trust are shown as a reduction in shareholder’s funds. Other assets and liabilities held by the trust are consolidated with the assets of the Group.

The policies, set out below, have been consistently applied to all the periods presented.

New standards and interpretations

In the current year, the Group has adopted IFRS 7 Financial Instruments: Disclosures which is effective for annual reporting periods beginning on or after 1 January 2007, and the related amendment to IAS 1 Presentation of Financial Statements. The impact of the adoption of IFRS 7 and the changes to IAS 1 has been to expand the disclosures provided in these financial statements regarding the Group’s financial instruments and management of capital (see Note 22). Four Interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee are effective for the current period. These are: IFRIC 7 Applying the Restatement Approach under IAS 29, Financial Reporting in Hyperinflationary Economies; IFRIC 8 Scope of IFRS 2; IFRIC 9 Reassessment of Embedded Derivates; and IFRIC 10 Interim Financial Reporting and Impairment. The adoption of these interpretations has not led to any changes in the Group’s accounting policies.

At the date of authorisation of these financial statements, the following Standards and Interpretations impacting the Group which have not been applied in these financial statements were in issue but not yet effective:

IFRS 8 Operating Segments
IAS 23 Revised Borrowing Costs
IFRIC 11 IFRS2 Group and Treasury Share Transactions
IFRIC 12 Service Concession Arrangements
IFRIC 13 Customer Loyalty Programmes
IFRIC 14 IAS 19 The Limit of a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum Funding Requirements and their Interaction

The Directors anticipate that the adoption of the above Standards and Interpretations in future periods will have little or no impact on the financial statements of the Group when the relevant Standards come into effect for periods commencing on or after 1 January 2008.

a) Revenue and income recognition

Revenue, which excludes value added tax (“VAT”), constitutes the value of services undertaken by the Group as its principal activities, which are recruitment consultancy and other ancillary services. These consist of:

  • revenue from temporary placements, which represents amounts billed for the services of temporary staff including the salary cost of these staff. This is recognised when the service has been provided;
  • revenue from permanent placements, which is based on a percentage of the candidate’s remuneration package, and is derived from both retained assignments (income recognised on completion of defined stages of work) and non-retained assignments (income recognised at the date an offer is accepted by a candidate and where a start date has been determined). The latter includes revenue anticipated, but not invoiced, at the balance sheet date, which is correspondingly accrued on the balance sheet within prepayments and accrued income. A provision is made against accrued income for possible cancellations of placements prior to, or shortly after, the commencement of employment; and
  • revenue from amounts billed to clients for expenses incurred on their behalf (principally advertisements) is recognised when the expense is incurred.

Interest income is accrued on a time basis, by reference to the principal outstanding and at the effective interest rate applicable.

b) Cost of sales

Cost of sales consists of the salary cost of temporary staff and costs incurred on behalf of clients, principally advertising costs.

c) Gross profit

Gross profit represents revenue less cost of sales and consists of the total placement fees of permanent candidates, the margin earned on the placement of temporary candidates and the margin on advertising income.

d) Foreign currency translation

(i)Functional and presentation currency

Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (“the functional currency”). The consolidated financial statements are presented in sterling, which is the Company’s functional and presentation currency.

(ii)Transactions and balances

Foreign currency transactions are translated into the respective functional currency using the exchange rates prevailing at the dates of the transactions. Foreign exchange gains and losses resulting from the settlement of such transactions and from the translation at year end exchange rates of monetary assets and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies are recognised in the income statement.

(iii)Group companies

The results and financial position of all the Group entities (none of which has the currency of a hyperinflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:

  • assets and liabilities for each balance sheet presented are translated at the closing rate at the date of that balance sheet;
  • income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exchange rates; and
  • all resulting exchange differences are recognised as a separate component of equity.

e) Intangible assets


Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the Group’s share of the net identifiable assets of the acquired subsidiary at the date of acquisition. Goodwill on the acquisition of subsidiaries is included in intangible assets.

Goodwill is stated at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units and is not amortised but is tested annually for impairment (see accounting policy h). Gains and losses on the disposal of an entity include the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold

(ii)Computer software

Computer software acquired by the Group is stated at cost less accumulated amortisation (see below).

(iii) Amortisation

Amortisation is charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of intangible assets unless such lives are indefinite. Goodwill has an indefinite useful life. Computer software is amortised at 20% per annum.

The cumulative amount of goodwill written off directly to retained earnings in respect of acquisitions prior to 31 December 1997 is £311.7m (2006: £311.7m).

f) Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment are stated at original cost less accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost less estimated residual value of each asset evenly over its expected useful life at the following rates:

  • Leasehold improvements 10% per annum or period of lease if shorter
  • Furniture, fixtures and equipment 10-20% per annum
  • Motor vehicles 25% per annum

g) Investments

Fixed asset investments are stated at cost less provision for impairment.

h) Impairment of assets

Assets that have an indefinite useful life are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the asset’s carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash-generating units).

A financial asset is assessed at each reporting date to determine whether there is any objective evidence that it is impaired. A financial asset is considered to be impaired if objective evidence indicates that one or more events has had a negative effect on the estimated future cash flows of that asset. For certain categories of financial asset, such as trade receivables, assets that are assessed not to be impaired individually are subsequently assessed for impairment on a collective basis. Objective evidence of impairment for a portfolio of receivables could include the Group’s past experience of collecting payments, an increase in the number of delayed payments in the portfolio, as well as observable changes in national or local economic conditions that correlate with default on receivables.

The carrying amount of the financial asset is reduced by the impairment loss directly for all financial assets with the exception of trade receivables, where the carrying amount is reduced through the use of an allowance account. When a trade receivable is considered uncollectible, it is written off against the allowance account. Subsequent recoveries of amounts previously written off are credited against the allowance account. Changes in the carrying amount of the allowance account are recognised in profit or loss.

i) Taxation

Income tax expense represents the sum of the tax currently payable and deferred tax.

The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from profit as reported in the income statement because it excludes items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and it further excludes items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the balance sheet date.

Deferred tax is recognised on differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities in the financial statements and the corresponding tax bases used in the computation of taxable profit, and is accounted for using the balance sheet liability method. Deferred tax liabilities are generally recognised for all taxable temporary differences and deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that taxable profits will be available against which deductible temporary differences can be utilised.

Such assets and liabilities are not recognised if the temporary difference arises from goodwill or from the initial recognition (other than in a business combination) of other assets and liabilities in a transaction that affects neither the taxable profit nor the accounting profit.

Deferred tax liabilities are recognised for taxable temporary differences arising on investments in subsidiaries, except where the Group is able to control the reversal of the temporary difference and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

The carrying amount of deferred tax assets is reviewed at each balance sheet date and reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that sufficient taxable profits will be available to allow all or part of the asset to be recovered.

Deferred tax is calculated at the tax rates that are expected to apply in the period when the liability is settled or the asset realised. Deferred tax is charged or credited to profit or loss, except when it relates to items charged or credited directly to equity, in which case the deferred tax is also dealt with in equity.

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are offset when there is a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and when they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority and the Group intends to settle its current tax assets and liabilities on a net basis.

j) Pension costs

The Group operates defined contribution pension schemes. The assets of the schemes are held separately from those of the Group in independently administered funds. The pension costs charged to the income statement represent the contributions payable by the Group to the funds during each period.

k) Leased assets

Leases are classified as finance leases whenever the terms of the lease transfer substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership to the lessee. All other leases are classified as operating leases.

Assets held under finance leases are recognised as assets of the Group at their fair value at the inception of the lease or, if lower, at the present value of the minimum lease payments. The corresponding liability to the lessor is included in the balance sheet as a finance lease obligation. Lease payments are apportioned between finance charges and reduction of the lease obligation so as to achieve a constant rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability. Finance charges are charged to profit or loss.

Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classed as operating leases. Rentals under operating leases are charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the term of the lease. Benefits received and receivable as an incentive to enter into an operating lease are also spread on a straight-line basis over the lease term.

l) Segment reporting

The consolidated entity operates in one business segment being that of recruitment services (primary segment). As a result no additional business segment information is required to be provided. The consolidated entity operates in four geographic segments (secondary segment), EMEA , the United Kingdom, Asia Pacific and the Americas.

m) Dividend distribution

Dividend distribution to the Company’s shareholders is recognised as a liability in the Group’s financial statements in the period in which the dividends are approved by the Company’s shareholders.

n) Share-based compensation

The Group operates a number of equity-settled, share-based compensation plans. Their accounting treatments are described below:

(i) Share option schemes

The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the grant of the options is recognised as an expense. The total amount to be expensed over the vesting period is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted, excluding the impact of any non-market vesting conditions (for example, earnings per share). Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of options that are expected to become exercisable. At each balance sheet date, the estimate of the number of options that are expected to become exercisable is revised. The Group recognises the impact of the revision of original estimates, if any, in the income statement, and the corresponding adjustment to equity over the remaining vesting period.

(ii) Deferred Annual Bonus and Long Term Incentive Plans

Where deferred awards are made to Directors and senior executives under either the Incentive Share Plan or the Annual Bonus Scheme, to reflect that the awards are for services over a longer period, the value of the expected award is charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the vesting period to which the award relates.

o) Repurchase of share capital

When share capital recognised as equity is repurchased, the amount of the consideration paid, including any directly attributable costs, is recognised as a change in equity.

p) Provisions

A provision is recognised in the balance sheet when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of a past event, and it is probable that an outflow of economic benefits will be required to settle the obligation. Provisions are measured at the Directors’ best estimate of the expenditure required to settle the obligation at the balance sheet date, and are discounted to present value where the effect is material.

q) Borrowing costs

All borrowing costs are accrued in the income statement on a time basis.

r) Financial assets and liabilities

Financial assets and liabilities are recognised in the Group’s balance sheet when the Group becomes a party to the contractual provisions of the instrument. Non-derivative financial instruments comprise trade and other receivables, cash and cash equivalents, loans and borrowings, and trade and other payables.

Trade receivables, loans, and other receivables that have fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market are classified as loans and receivables. Loans and receivables are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less any impairment. Interest income is recognised by applying the effective interest rate, except for short-term receivables when the recognition of interest would be immaterial.

Cash and cash equivalents includes cash-in-hand, deposits held at call with banks, and other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less. Bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and form an integral part of the Group’s cash management are included as a component of cash and cash equivalents for the purpose of the statement of cash flows.

Trade and other payables are stated at cost. Other financial liabilities, including borrowings, are initially measured at fair value, net of transaction costs.

The Group has no financial assets ‘at fair value through profit or loss’, ‘held-to-maturity’ investments or ‘available for sale’ financial assets under IFRS 7. Additionally, as the Group has no derivative contracts at the balance sheet date, the requirements of the recognition criteria under IAS 39 are also not relevant to the Group.

s) Critical accounting estimates and judgements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with IFRS requires the use of certain critical accounting estimates and judgements. It also requires management to exercise judgement in the process of applying the Company's accounting policies. Estimates and judgements are continually evaluated and are based on historical experience and other factors, including expectations of future events that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Management anticipate that any estimates and judgements made do not have a material effect on the results.

In particular, information about significant areas of estimation uncertainty and critical judgements in applying accounting policies that have the most significant effect on the amount recognised in the financial statements are described in the following notes:

  • Note 1 – revenue recognition
  • Note 17 – utilisation of tax losses
  • Note 18 – measurement of share-based payments

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